Diabetes Types I and II Symptoms and Treatment by Drugs, Diet and Natural Supplementation

The aim of this article is to give the reader a basic knowledge of the causes and symptoms of diabetes types I and II. The article will then go to describe some drug treatments along with the side effects. The use of a diabetes friendly diet and treatment with natural supplementation will be described. At the end of the article the reader, suffering from diabetes types I or II should have enough knowledge to make some objective decisions concerning their own treatment.

Diabetes Type I (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus)

Millions of people suffer from adult-onset diabetes mellitus. The onset is usually from the early teens into the twenties. The main problem to this group of people is sugar. However, it is not sugar as such but how the body reacts to it. The problem arises when the body cannot produce enough insulin (created in the pancreas). The main symptoms include intense thirst, frequent urination, and rapid weight loss. Left untreated diabetes type I (noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus) can lead to damage to the eyes, kidneys, heart, and nerves. Untreated diabetes type I can eventually lead to coma and death. The onset of this disease is so insidious that many people suffering this condition do not realise they have it.

Diabetes Type II (noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus)

Type II diabetes, which is often referred to as insulin resistance, is a little more complex. Usually not starting until the early to mid-forties the causes may have been building up over many years. In diabetes type II the problem is not just a lack of insulin but a defect in the receptors for insulin in the cell walls of fat and muscle tissue, and the liver. This causes an inadequate transfer of of glucose into these organs. The symptoms of an ‘insulin resistance’ are increased urination and thirst, worsening over a few weeks.

Long term complications of Types I and II are generally the same. However, people with diabetes type II can suffer high incidences of stroke, hypertension and heart disease.

Treatment By The Use Of Drugs

Insulin: there are many different trade names. Function: to control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes type I, and sometimes with type II. Side effects: raised cholesterol and blood pressure, obesity.

Oral Hypoglycemic Agents (sulphonylureas): tolbutamide, tolazamide, glipizide, gliquidone, amongst others. to lower blood sugar by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin. Side effects: increased risk of death from heart disease with long term use.

Biguanides: metformin hydrochloride (glucophage). Function: to increase insulin activity in muscle and fat tissue by preventing the liver releasing extra extra glucose into the bloodstream. Side effects: nausea, loss of appetite, and abdominal cramps.

Glucosidase Inhibitors: acarbose (glucobay). Function: to prevent a rise in blood glucose after eating a diet high in starchy, high-fiber foods. Side effects: wind, bloating, flatulence, malabsorption of nutrients.

Treatment of Diabetes Type I and II by the use of diet

Diet of the person suffering diabetes type I or II is extremely important. However, it needs to be tailored specifically to the individual as no two people benefit the same. The person with type I usually have to be on a very regimented diet. Calories must me managed precisely so that the correct dose of insulin is taken. Blood sugar level needs to be monitored at regular intervals to asses control of the disease. The diet of people suffering type II is somewhat controversial. The advice used to be to eat a low fat, high starch, moderate protein diet, similar to the diet healthy people are supposed to follow. However, recent research as indicated that this type of diet for the person suffering noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus can raise insulin to dangerous levels (caused by high starch consumption). Anthropological studies (studies on our ancestors) have shown that there was very few cases of diabetes in the people of that time. Compared to the average person today these ‘hunter gatherers’ ate much more meat and animal fat, and ate very little in the way of grains and other carbohydrates.

Treatment Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus And Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus By Natural Supplementation

Bilberry: vaccinium is a fruit is a rich source of anthocyanidins and proanthocyanidins, which are just two types of flavonoids. Diabetes suferers often have damage to their capillaries supplying the eyes, kidneys, extremities. Flavanoids have been shown to protect capillaries.

Bitter Melon: momordica charantia contains phytochemicals that appear to work in the same way as sulphonylurea drugs (see above), without the side effects.

Gymnema: gymnema sylvestre contains gymnemic acid which acts on the tongue to block the ability to taste sweetness. This helps people with a ‘sweet tooth’ stop eating ‘sweet treats’. Gymnema itself appears to stimulate the the production of insulin.

Optimum Diabetics is a proprietary blend of all natural ingredients to help maintain the health of the person suffering diabetes types I and II. Active ingredients are bitter melon, fenugreek, garcinia, gmnema, vanaqdium, chromium, evening primrose oil, alpha lipoic acid.

It can be seen that there is no one clear cut remedy for the person suffering either type I or type II diabetes mellitus. The ‘jury seem to be out’ on the exact sufferers should follow. However, all corners agree that the now standard ‘western’ junk diet of high sugar, low fiber foods is bad for a diabetic. All agree that overweight can exacerbate both types of the condition. Therefore keeping body fat within the recommended range and getting some exercise can only do the diabetic good.

A Study On Ulticaria

The human body secretes histamine along with some more chemicals into the blood as an allergic reaction to some substances. This may lead to bulky skin, itching and similar symptoms. Hives is a common disease in people with low resistance power and allergic to particular things.

Chronic urticaria is the term used for hives lasting more than 2 months. Visually there are no such dissimilarities between normal and chronic urticaria. The most severe circumstances of urticaria may even last for more than two years. It was seen from a survey that chronic urticaria lasts more than a year in above 60% of the urticaria patients and for 18 or more years in 20% of them.

Some drugs leading to allergic reactions that cause Urticaria include: suphonylurea, aspirin, some anti-convulsants and more. Urticaria caused by drugs has also been a reason for critical cardiac complexities. Sulphonylurea glimepiride, a drug used for controlling diabetes in particular, has been known to cause allergic reactions leading to Urticaria. Even aspirin intake has many cases has been seen as a cause for urticaria.

Other sources causing urticaria:

• Insect bites- A lot of insects may trigger urticaria.

• Water contact- A rare kind of urticaria happens upon contact with water. This may last from 15 minutes to an hour.

• Heat- Excess exposure to heat may also lead to urticaria. This may be due to too much time spent in steam room or near a furnace and similar activities. This kind of urticaria usually lasts for some hours.

• Cold- Similarly over exposure to cold temperatures may also lead to a kind of urticaria. This lasts not more than a few minutes.

• Stress Related- This form of urticaria is caused by over exercise or too much time spent in hot baths. This is the most common reason for urticaria. Small red spots are seen on the skin, which may cause itching. The spots or hives are smaller than the normal one. It may last for some days in extreme cases.

• Vibration related: This is one more type caused by exposure to vibration. It is a very rare and temporary kind of urticaria.

Other sources include:

• Pollen grains

• Fish, nuts, eggs, milk etc.

• Excess emotional stress

• Too much exposure to sun or cold.

Another type of urticaria is also known as Dermographism. It is a type of Urticaria known by weals or welts appearing on the skin which leads to itchy, loose or dry skin. This is the most common type of Urticaria. In many cases it does not last long, the skin returns to its normal form in a matter of hours.

The Treatment:

The treatment starts with identifying the cause of urticaria. Intestinal worms have been seen as a leading to urticaria. Usually domestic medication and some natural herbs do the work.

Type 2 Diabetes – Does This Diabetic Medication Help With Psoriasis As Well As Lower Blood Sugar?

Psoriasis is a skin condition seen more in diabetics than in non-diabetics. Controlling it can mean a lifetime of frustration. According to an article published in the journal Diabetes and Metabolism in January 2012, the diabetes drug exenatide (Byetta) could become one more addition to the armamentarium of drugs used to treat psoriasis.

A 61-year-old man with a body mass index of 25.5 and Type 2 diabetes treated with metformin and sulphonylureas for diabetes and steroids for psoriasis, had exenatide, or Byetta, added to his diabetic regimen. His weight and HbA1c levels went down and, unexpectedly, his psoriasis also improved dramatically.

One year later his psoriasis was still under control. When he stopped taking exenatide he gained weight, showed an increase in his HbA1c percentage, and had a psoriatic flare-up. After beginning exenatide or Byetta again, he once more found the psoriasis quickly improved.

From this information, it was speculated that exenatide altered the diabetic’s immune system.

What is psoriasis? Psoriasis is classed as an autoimmune disorder, meaning the immune system attacks cells of the patient’s body. The resulting inflammation causes skin cells to reproduce much more rapidly than normal and to slough off in white scales, leaving angry, itchy, red lesions behind. Like Type 2 diabetes, psoriasis is frequently associated with overweight and obesity.

Psoriasis is extremely variable in its duration and course. A single lesion may persist for a lifetime or many lesions may be present. Some people are never free of the disease while others have long remissions.

According to the State University of New York at Buffalo, United States, exenatide (Byetta) is an anti-inflammatory drug. An injection of exenatide was followed by an anti-inflammatory effect as soon as 5 minutes later, and the effect was still seen 12 weeks later.

In diabetics, exenatide is similar to the incretin hormone GLP-1, and like the natural hormone, exenatide causes the pancreas to secrete insulin. It also:

  • prevents the liver from making too much sugar,
  • lowers appetite, and
  • reduces liver fat.

Since Type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory disease, could exenatide’s anti-inflammatory effect be another mechanism by which it helps to control Type 2 diabetes? Time and more research will tell.

Exenatide is injected just under the skin of the arms, thighs, or abdomen, within 60 minutes of breakfast and dinner. It is prescribed for Type 2 diabetics who have found diet, exercise and metformin or other oral anti-diabetic medication, is not enough.

The experience of one person is not as telling as a large-scale study, but for anyone with both Type 2 diabetes and psoriasis, exenatide (Byetta) might be something to consider to help both conditions.