Exercising With Diabetes

When a person who doesn’t have diabetes takes exercise, the release of insulin from the pancreas is shut down, whereas other hormones are produced that cause the blood glucose level to rise.

When you’re taking insulin or sulphonylurea (SU) tablets, however, your insulin level goes on rising and, if you’ve had an injection into one of the limbs that you’re exercising, the insulin may be absorbed faster than usual.

When you know you’re going to exercise, you can adjust your medication and/or diet to make allowances. You dose of insulin may have to be cut by as much as half, depending on how vigorous an exercise session you’re planning.

It’s more difficult when you take exercise unexpectedly, and this can be a particular problem with children. Once again, the solution is to have your quick-acting carbohydrate handy – a sugary drink, a biscuit or glucose tablets.

Delayed Hypos
Vigorous exercise can also lead to a delayed hypoglycaemic reaction. For example, a strenuous workout in the evening may cause night-time blood glucose levels to fall as your muscles replenish glycogen stores. A reduction in the bedtime insulin dose may be necessary in these circumstances.

Don’t Stop Exercising

As long you take sensible precautions, there’s no reason at all why you shouldn’t take part in any kind of sport that you want to and at any level. Both Gary Mabbutt and Alan Kernaghan had type 1 diabetes and played Premier league football, and Sir Steven Redgrave – five times Olympic rowing champion – developed type 1 diabetes before his final gold medal.

Many people with diabetes take part in just about every known sport – although there are some that require special considerations, such as scuba diving or hang gliding, and they might be better avoided! In any case, the high-risk sports often have special rules and regulations relating to people with diabetes, and it is important for your own safety that you abide by them.

Diabetes – Knowing The Different Types of Diabetes Treatment Drugs Available To Type 2 Diabetics

When people hear the diagnoses of diabetes, they tend to assume that insulin injections are the only
course of treatment available to them. With Type 2 diabetes this is not the case, and there are many
different diabetes treatment drugs that your doctor may recommend you try before you resort to
taking insulin. Here are a few of the diabetes treatment drugs available today, along with their
possible side effects.

Biguanide –

Biguanide, otherwise known as metformin, is a diabetes treatment drug taken two to three times
daily. It prevents the liver from producing new glucose, and also assists insulin in carrying
glucose to the body’s cells. The side effects of this treatment are mild, and include an upset
stomach, nausea or diarrhoea. Side effects decrease over time, and can be limited by taking
biguanide tablets with food.

Prandial glucose regulators –

Prandial glucose regulators need to be taken three times daily to stimulate insulin production in
the pancreas. They act quickly over a short time period, reducing the risk of a hypo, and so should
be taken at the same time as a meal is eaten. The various types of prandial glucose regulators,
including repaglinide and nateglinide, can cause an upset stomach, nausea and skin rashes. Weight
gain can also be a side effect, but this can often be controlled by prescribing a flexible dose.

Sulphonylureas –

Sulphonylureas such as chlorpropamide, glibenclamide and glimepiride, are one form of diabetes
treatment. They are taken in tablet form once or twice a day, to stimulate natural insulin
production in the body. They have a number of side effects, including nausea, weight gain, and an
upset stomach, and occasionally a lumpy red skin rash. Sulphonylureas work over a long period of
time and can make the blood sugar drop too low, causing hypoglycaemia. For this reason they are
rarely prescribed for elderly diabetics.

Thiazolidinediones –

Thiazolidinediones are a relatively new diabetes type 2 treatment drug, that comes in two distinct
forms, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. This drug is designed to overcome insulin resistance in the
body, enabling type 2 diabetics to use their naturally produced insulin more effectively. Side
effects of this diabetes treatment include weight gain, fluid retention and headaches. It can also
lead to upper respiratory track infections in rare cases.

DPP-4 inhibitors –

DPP-4 inhibitors are a type of diabetes treatment that increases levels of the incretin hormone,
which occurs naturally in the body. This hormone is produced when we eat and helps us to produce
the required amount of insulin, whilst limiting glucose production in the liver. DPP-4 inhibitors
can be taken along with other tablets such as thiazolidinediones, but not with insulin. The side
effects of these diabetes treatment drugs depend largely on what you are taking them with, but they
have a small risk of causing hypoglycaemia.

Alpha glucose inhibitor –

An alpha glucose inhibitor, such as acarbose, is a diabetes treatment that can be taken three times
a day. It slows down the rate at which starchy food is absorbed into the blood stream from the
intestine, meaning that blood sugar levels rise more slowly after a meal. Your doctor is likely to
prescribe a reduced dose of one tablet a day at first, because this will cut down on the side
effects such as bloating, wind and diarrhea.

At some point most type 2 diabetics will find that they do need to switch to insulin to treat their
condition. This is often because after many years of diabetes treatment drugs the pancreas is no
longer able to produce sufficient insulin. Although the idea of insulin injections can be terrifying
to some people, the needles used are actually quite small as the injection occurs just under the
skin. Insulin is injected into the stomach, buttocks or thighs, and the injection sites are varied
to reduce insulin build up. For those that can’t face injections, the switch form diabetes
treatment drugs to insulin can be eased by the use of an inhaler or insulin pump.

Treatment For Type-Two Diabetes – Listing The Options

There are about 17 million people in the U.S. who have diabetes mellitus and 90% of those diagnosed have non-insulin dependent diabetes or Type-Two diabetes. Once diagnosed, the course of treatment for this disease usually involves a controlled and healthy diet and physical regimen and if necessary, medication.

Treating Type-Two Diabetes

The goal of every treatment for Type-Two diabetes is the management of the disease by ensuring that the blood glucose level is regulated and kept within the normal range. If you have Type-Two diabetes, it’s important to perform a blood test regularly in order to monitor blood glucose level. This test is referred to as the HbA1c test, commonly performed at least every 2 months by a doctor.

The HbA1c test measures red blood cells, the number of which will indicate your blood glucose level. Your doctor will inform you what your target level should be. A normal or close to normal HbA1c level will help you feel better and lower your risk of developing complications associated with diabetes such as kidney, feet, heart and eye problems.

Your HbA1c and blood glucose level can usually be regulated by following these guidelines:

Eat a Balanced Diet

If you have diabetes, you will probably be working with a nurse and a dietitian to help you design a healthful meal plan. This usually requires that you eat plenty of fruits and vegetables and foods that are rich in fiber and low in fat. There is no such thing as “special foods” for people with diabetes, so there’s no need for you to try to explore anything more than the usual. Following a sensible and healthful meal plan should suffice.

Maintain a Healthy Weight Range

This means that if you’re overweight, you will have to shed a few pounds. This will not only help you lower your blood glucose level, you will also feel healthier and have more energy.

Engage in Regular Physical Activity

Regular exercise is important to keep your blood circulation going and your heart healthy. It will also help you lose or maintain weight. Physical activity also helps reduce your risk of developing heart problems.

Some diabetics also need medication, which includes pills and insulin injections. The combination of medication and lifestyle changes are necessary in order to manage Type-Two diabetes successfully and avoid any complications that might lead to a serious health risk. This is also important to help reduce cardiovascular risk and control hypertension.

Conventional Medicines for the Treatment of Type-Two Diabetes

For most individuals, Type-Two diabetes may be managed by simply making reasonable but controlled changes in their lifestyle choices. This is done for a period of several months and if successful, the same diet, physical regimen and weight control program is maintained for life. If the blood glucose level is too high despite the changes, medication is usually prescribed.

Some of the most common medications used to treat Type-Two diabetes include:

Metformin. This is a biguanide taken in tablet form, usually the first treatment you will receive. It helps decrease the amount of glucose that is released from the liver to the bloodstream. It also helps increase your body’s sensitivity to insulin. Unlike other medications that lower glucose levels, there is little risk of metformin causing hypoglycemia. It may also be used with other Type-Two diabetes medications.

The only drawback to using metformin is that it causes nausea and diarrhea in some users, although this can be avoided if a low dose is used initially and gradually built up over a period of several weeks.

Sulphonylurea. These include drugs such as glibenclamide, glimepiride, gliquidone, gliclazide and tolbutamide, which are well-tolerated by patients who can not use metformin. In Type-Two diabetes, this drug treatment helps the pancreas produce more insulin. The dose for this drug may be increased gradually until the blood glucose level can be controlled.

Sulphonylurea can be an effective part of Type-Two diabetes treatment if you have healthful, regular meals and don’t take alcohol. Otherwise, it might allow hypoglycemia to set in. Sulphonylurea drugs can also cause nausea, constipation or mild diarrhea.

Thiazolidinediones or Glitazones. As part of a Type-Two diabetes drug treatment, these medications help increase your body’s sensitivity to insulin so it is more capable of processing glucose in the cells. This helps lower your blood glucose level. Thiazolidinediones or glitazones are usually taken in conjunction with other diabetes drugs.

Thiazolidinediones or glitazones are quite effective as drug treatment for Type-Two diabetes. The only drawback is that you’ll have a slight risk of developing liver damage, so regular blood tests are required for monitoring. Fluid retention is also another side effect.